MLflow Projects

An MLflow Project is a format for packaging data science code in a reusable and reproducible way, based primarily on conventions. In addition, the Projects component includes an API and command-line tools for running projects, making it possible to chain together projects into workflows.


At the core, MLflow Projects are just a convention for organizing and describing your code to let other data scientists (or automated tools) run it. Each project is simply a directory of files, or a Git repository, containing your code. MLflow can run some projects based on a convention for placing files in this directory (for example, a conda.yaml file will be treated as a Conda environment), but you can describe your project in more detail by adding a MLproject file, which is a YAML formatted text file. Each project can specify several properties:

A human-readable name for the project.
Libraries needed to run the project. MLflow currently uses the Conda package manager, which supports both Python packages and native libraries (for example, CuDNN or Intel MKL), to specify dependencies.
Entry Points
Commands that can be executed within the project, and information about their parameters. Most projects will contain at least one entry point that you want other users to call. Some projects can also contain more than one entry point: for example, you might have a single Git repository containing multiple featurization algorithms. You can also call any .py or .sh file in the project as an entry point. If you list your entry points in a MLproject file, however, you can also specify parameters for them, including data types and default values.

You can run any project from a Git URI or from a local directory using the mlflow run command-line tool, or the Python API. These APIs also allow submitting the project for remote execution on Databricks.


By default, MLflow will use a new, temporary working directory for Git projects. This means that you should generally pass any file arguments to MLflow project using absolute, not relative, paths. If your project declares its parameters, MLflow will automatically make paths absolute for parameters of type path.

Specifying Projects

By default, any Git repository or local directory is treated as a project, and MLflow uses the following conventions to determine its parameters:

  • The project’s name is the name of the directory.
  • The Conda environment is specified in conda.yaml, if present.
  • Any .py and .sh file in the project can be an entry point, with no parameters explicitly declared. When you execute such a command with a set of parameters, MLflow will pass each parameter on the command line using --key value syntax.

You can get more control over a project by adding a MLproject, which is simply a text file in YAML syntax. The MLproject file looks like this:

name: My Project

conda_env: my_env.yaml

      data_file: path
      regularization: {type: float, default: 0.1}
    command: "python -r {regularization} {data_file}"
      data_file: path
    command: "python {data_file}"

As you can see, the file can specify a name and a different environment file, as well as more detailed information about each entry point. Specifically, each entry point has a command to run and parameters (including data types). We describe these two pieces next.

Command Syntax

When specifying an entry point in an MLproject file, the command can be any string in Python format string syntax. All of the parameters declared in the entry point’s parameters field will be passed into this string for substitution. If you call the project with additional parameters not listed in the parameters field, MLflow will still pass them using --key value syntax, so you can use the MLproject file to declare types and defaults for just a subset of your parameters if you like.

Before substituting parameters in the command, MLflow will escape them using Python’s shlex.quote function, so you need not worry about adding quotes inside your command field.

Specifying Parameters

MLflow allows specifying a data type and default value for each parameter. You can specify just the data type by writing:

parameter_name: data_type

in your YAML file, or add a default value as well using one of the following syntaxes (which are equivalent in YAML):

parameter_name: {type: data_type, default: value}  # Short syntax

parameter_name:     # Long syntax
  type: data_type
  default: value

MLflow supports four parameter types, some of which it treats specially (for example, downloading data to local files). Any undeclared parameters are treated as string. The parameter types are:

Any text string.
A real number. MLflow validates that the parameter is a number.
A path on the local file system. MLflow will convert any relative paths passed for parameters of this type to absolute paths, and will also download any paths passed as distributed storage URIs (s3:// and dbfs://) to local files. Use this type for programs that can only read local files.
A URI for data either in a local or distributed storage system. MLflow will convert any relative paths to absolute paths, as in the path type. Use this type for programs that know how to read from distributed storage (for example using Spark).

Running Projects

MLflow provides two simple ways to run projects: the mlflow run command-line tool, or the Python API. Both tools take the following parameters:

Project URI
Can be either a directory on the local file system or a Git repository path, specified as a URI of the form https://<repo> (to use HTTPS) or user@host:path (to use Git over SSH).
Project Version
Which commit in the Git repository to run, for Git-based projects.
Entry Point
The name of the entry point to use, which defaults to main. You can use any entry point named in the MLproject file, or any .py or .sh file in the project, given as a path from the project root (for example, src/
Key-value parameters. Any parameters with declared types will be validated and transformed if needed.
Deployment Mode
Both the command-line and API let you launch projects remotely on a Databricks environment if you have a Databricks account. This includes setting cluster parameters such as a VM type. Of course, you can also run projects on any other computing infrastructure of your choice using the local version of the mlflow run command (for example, submit a script that does mlflow run to a standard job queueing system).

For example, in the tutorial we create and publish a MLproject which trains a linear model. The project is also published on GitHub at To execute this project run

mlflow run -P alpha=0.5

There are also additional options for disabling the creation of a Conda environment, which can be useful if you quickly want to test a project in your existing shell environment.

Remote Execution on Databricks

Support for running projects on Databricks will be released soon - sign up here to receive updates.

Launching a Run

First, create a JSON file containing the cluster spec for your run with the attributes described here. Then, run your project via

mlflow run <uri> -m databricks --cluster-spec <path>

<uri> must be a Git repository URI. You can also pass Git credentials via the git-username and git-password arguments (or via the MLFLOW_GIT_USERNAME and MLFLOW_GIT_PASSWORD environment variables).

Iterating Quickly

If you want to rapidly develop a project, we recommend creating an MLproject file with your main program specified as the main entry point, and running it with mlflow run .. You can even add default parameters in your MLproject to avoid repeatedly writing them.

Building Multi-Step Workflows

The API, combined with mlflow.tracking, makes it possible to build multi-step workflows with separate projects (or entry points in the same project) as the individual steps. Each call to returns a run ID, which you can use with mlflow.tracking to determine when the run has ended and get its output artifacts. These artifacts can then be passed into another step that takes path or uri parameters. You can coordinate all of the workflow in a single Python program that looks at the results of each step and decides what to submit next using custom code. Some example uses cases for multi-step workflows include:

Modularizing Your Data Science Code
Different users can publish reusable steps for data featurization, training, validation, and so on, that other users or team can run in their workflows. Because MLflow supports Git versioning, another team can lock their workflow to a specific version of a project, or upgrade to a new one on their own schedule.
Hyperparameter Tuning
Using you can launch multiple runs in parallel either on the local machine or on a cloud platform like Databricks. Your driver program can then inspect the metrics from each run in real time to cancel runs, launch new ones, or select the best performing run on a target metric.
Sometimes you want to run the same training code on different random splits of training and validation data. With MLflow Projects, you can package the project in a way that allows this, for example, by taking a random seed for the train/validation split as a parameter, or by calling another project first that can split the input data.